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Indonesian / Year 9 and 10 / Understanding / Language variation and change

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

Recognise how Indonesian impacts and is impacted by social, political and cultural changes, such as new information and communication technologies

[Key concepts: impact, power, technology; Key processes: analysing, discussing]


  • recognising how and why a language may borrow vocabulary and expressions from other languages, particularly when adopting new products and practices, for example, English terms for technology adapted to Indonesian grammar (nge-lunch, meng-upload, ngopi, memfotokopi), and the use of texting language for convenience and humour
  • analysing word borrowings in Indonesian, such as from Arabic (Assalam alaikum), English (teknis, format), Dutch (rekening, wortel, kantor), Sanskrit (bahasa, belanja), Tamil (roti, mangga) and Javanese (alon-alon asal kelakon), and exploring borrowings in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages from languages in Indonesia, such as the use of Makassan terms in Yolngu (balanda, rupiah)
  • understanding that cultures are constantly changing and consist of multiple subcultures with distinctive language practices such as family sayings and teenage slang, for example, nongkrong, gebetan, cowok/cewek
  • investigating how the language of texts in public spaces, such as signs and graffiti, can reflect opinions, values and beliefs, including controversial or political ideas, for example, reformasi
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
  • Intercultural understanding Intercultural understanding
  • ICT capability Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability
  • Ethical understanding Ethical understanding
Cross-curriculum priorities
ScOT terms

Language evolution,  Indonesian language

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