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Listed under:  Molecular forces

Making and breaking bonds

This is an interactive resource exploring the association and dissociation of diatomic molecules. Students observe how atoms collide and, under certain circumstances, react to form bonds with one another. The process of association is the bonding of atoms into a molecule while dissociation is the process by which a molecule ...


VisChem topic 7: intermolecular forces

This web page contains animations demonstrating situations in which dispersion forces, ion-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding occur. Several animations show hydrated ions, and the effect of hydration on dissolving and reaction rates is discussed in explanatory text. A document containing lesson plans and student worksheets ...


Reactions and rates

This is an interactive resource in which students explore what makes a reaction happen by colliding atoms and molecules. The can design experiments with different reactions, concentrations, and temperatures. Students can use the potential energy diagram to determine the activation energy for the forward and reverse reactions, ...



This is an interactive resource exploring the effects of homogeneous catalysts. Using an interactive molecular model, students explore how catalysts make alternative pathways between the reactants and products that have lower activation energies, thus speeding up reactions.


VisChem topic 12: acid-base reactions

This web page contains a video, animations and a student worksheet examining the proton-transfer reactions of acids and bases. Self-ionisation of water, acidity of hydrated metal ions, proton gain by ammonia molecules and proton loss from acetic acid are depicted. The animations show important molecular-level segments from ...


Graphene: the new wonder material

Graphene is perhaps the most significant new material produced in recent years. It has many potential applications in electrical devices, biomedical technology and solar energy. Graphene is a form (allotrope) of carbon with some special chemical and physical properties. Watch this clip to explore the molecular structure, ...


Magic tricks revealed using chemistry

Some magic tricks, such as disappearing ink or candles that won't blow out, can be explained by chemistry. In this clip, three classroom chemistry experiments demonstrate that some familiar magic tricks rely on acid-base chemical reactions, and the properties and behaviour of gases. Watch closely if you've ever wanted to ...