Indonesian / Year 9 and 10 / Understanding / Systems of language

Curriculum content descriptions

Develop knowledge of vocabulary and structure to extend meanings, such as complex verbs, affixation, a range of cohesive devices and object-focus construction

[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: experimenting, applying]


  • identifying people by pronouns or titles, for example, Kepala Sekolah, si (diminutive) and nicknames
  • describing the qualities of people using adjectives of character, for example, murah hati, bertanggung-jawab
  • indicating possibility, for example, mungkin, mudah-mudahan, semoga
  • specifying what is being referred to, for example, yang ini, yang itu
  • understanding embedded clauses using yang, for example, Saya belum berkenalan dengan murid yang baru datang dari Australia
  • indicating equivalence using adalah
  • indicating action using transitive verbs, me- verb system (-kan or -i suffix) and their object-focus di- forms
  • showing lack of purpose, for example, jalan-jalan, duduk-duduk, melihat-lihat
  • relating people and position using prepositions, for example, kepada
  • comparing things using comparatives and superlatives, for example, ter-, makin lama…, makin + adjective
  • seeking information using interrogatives and question forms, for example, mengapa, bagaimana, yang mana, untuk apa/siapa, dengan apa/siapa
  • requesting that others do something for own benefit (minta, harap, mohon, tolong); for others’ benefit (silakan)
  • excusing and apologising, for example, permisi dulu, minta maaf, maafkan saya
  • giving advice with suffix -lah, for example, beristirahatlah, tunggulah, nasehat saya, sebaiknya, seharusnya, jangan
  • showing empathy and well-wishing, for example, kasihan, harap cepat sembuh, semoga sukses
  • giving opinion, for example, saya berpendapat bahwa, saya percaya
  • contrasting two ideas using conjunctions, for example, namun, namun demikian, walaupun begitu, meskipun
  • referring to abstract ideas using affixation and nominalisation, for example, belajar/pelajar/pelajaran, kerja/mengerjakan/pekerjaan, sakit/penyakit/kesakitan
  • referring to events and time using frequency markers (for example, sering kali, sekali-sekali, belum pernah, hampir tidak pernah) and time indicators, for example, tadi malam, nanti, nanti sore, sekarang, pada masa depan, yang akan datang, waktu liburan yang lalu
  • referring back to something specific using tersebut
General capabilities
  • Literacy Literacy
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
ScOT terms

Compound words,  Cohesion (Language),  Affixes,  Indonesian language,  Transitivity (Grammar),  Objects (Grammar)

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