Japanese / Year 9 and 10 / Understanding / Systems of language

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Curriculum content descriptions

Understand how sophistication in expression can be achieved by the use of a variety of verb and adjective conjugations

[Key concepts: metalanguage, plain form, form conjugation, word functions; Key processes: identifying, defining, classifying, sequencing]


  • further developing metalanguage to describe and increase control of grammatical concepts and language elements and to organise learning resources such as verb charts and lists of vocabulary and sentence structures
  • understanding and applying the rules of the plain form, and knowing that the basic form of all Japanese verbs ends in -u, -eru or -iru, the forms they are listed under in dictionaries
  • understanding that verbs can be divided into three groups according to the way they are conjugated: Group 1 (five-step verbs), Group 2 (one-step verbs) and Group 3 (irregular verbs)
  • using character charts as a systematic framework for recognising patterns for verb conjugation, and applying the formation rules of each verb group
  • using verb form to connect events, for example, (あさ)おきてジョギングをします。
  • understanding and using the different functions of verb form
  • using present continuous tense using verb ています, for example, ラジオを聞いています。
  • requesting and giving permission and expressing prohibition using verb form, for example, ~てもいいです。~てはいけません。~てはだめです。
  • using verb stems with grammatical features such as ~かった。~やすい/にくいです。~に行きます。
  • exploring how to use plain forms in authentic contexts such as conversations with peers, for example, 食べる? 見る?
  • expressing opinions, intentions and thoughts using the plain form, for example:
    • plain verb つもりです。
    • verb /adjective とおもいます。
    • ~たり~たりします。
  • using and adjectives in present and past tenses, for example:
    • おいしい ◊ おいしかったです。
    • たのしくない ◊ たのしくなかったです。
    • しずかな ◊ しずかでした。
  • using adverbs and intensifiers such as かなり, ぜんぜん, たいてい
  • sequencing actions, for example, 朝おきてジョギングをします。
  • increasing cohesion within paragraphs by using conjunctions, for example, ですから
  • indicating the status of actions using adverbs such as まだ and もう
  • understanding the concept of uchi-soto ((うち)(そと)) for making appropriate choices of register, for example, 食べる?食べますか?
General capabilities
  • Literacy Literacy
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
ScOT terms

Japanese language,  Japanese verb groups

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