Mathematics / Year 9 / Statistics and Probability / Chance

Curriculum content descriptions

Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving 'and' or 'or' (ACMSP226)

  • using Venn diagrams or two-way tables to calculate relative frequencies of events involving ‘and’, ‘or’ questions
  • using relative frequencies to find an estimate of probabilities of ‘and’, ‘or’ events
General capabilities
  • Literacy Literacy
  • Numeracy Numeracy
ScOT terms

Statistical frequency,  Conditional probability


Catalyst: Magical maths

At first glance, maths and magic might not appear to have much in common, but did you know that you can use maths and logic to come up with solutions to problems that can seem magical? Learn one such maths trick in this video from ABC Catalyst. What is the probability of the letter not being 'e'?


reSolve: Monte Carlo Simulations

This sequence of two lessons explores how statistical techniques that rely on randomly generated data can be used to solve problems. In the first lesson, students compare different methods for calculating the area of an irregular shape, using the context of oil spill maps. They are introduced to the Monte Carlo method for ...


ReSolve: Hot Streaks

This sequence of two lessons students investigate streaks in statistical data. They develop tests for randomness in order to distinguish between random and non-random results and use their understanding of randomness to investigate the existence or otherwise of the 'hot streak' phenomenon in basketball. Each lesson is outlined ...


Probability calculations: Year 9 – planning tool

This planning resource for Year 9 is for the topic of Probability calculations. Students build on their knowledge of probability, Venn diagrams, two-way tables and the terms ‘and’ and ‘or’ (inclusive or exclusive) in relation to events whereby relative frequencies may be calculated.


Back to the books

In this lesson, students will explore how bookmakers set odds, and how these odds are carefully determined in order to guarantee the bookmaker the best chance of making a profit. Students learn how to convert between odds and probabilities and calculate the expected profit or loss based on odds. The lesson is outlined in ...


Assessment task: Chuck-a-Luck

This assessment includes a number of questions to enable students to demonstrate their understanding and learning in probability. Students will be asked to investigate an old gambling game known as Chuck-a-Luck. They will calculate the probabilities of each betting option and their expected values. The assessment task is ...


Lucky lottery

In this lesson, students play a simple lottery game, analyse their odds of winning and how this influences the decisions they made. Students determine the differences between experimental and mathematical probability, conduct a simulation modelling an event and critically evaluate the odds of winning the lottery. The lesson ...


Counter-intuitive probability

This lesson is designed to demonstrate the ways in which random chance can be counter-intuitive. Students will explore how assumptions made in probability can be risky and investigate how to perform precise calculations to answer probability questions. The lesson is outlined in detail including NSW curriculum links, learning ...


Assessment task: Non-transitive dice

This assessment includes a number of questions to enable students to demonstrate their understanding and learning in probability. Students will be asked to explore the outcomes of a set of non-transitive dice using probability tree diagrams, and discover their unique features. The assessment task is outlined in detail including ...


Loot boxes

In this lesson, students will create their own video game concept, complete with a loot box system. They will then calculate the probability of obtaining all unique items to form a complete set, considering the challenges this random system entails and how the gambling system inherent could lead to unexpected losses. The ...


Big data, better hospitals

Overcrowding in hospitals is one of the biggest challenges facing our healthcare system . In order to reduce hospital waiting times, the Patient Admission Prediction Tool (PAPT) uses historical data to predict how many patients, and with what kinds of injuries, are expected to arrive at the emergency department each day ...


MathXplosion, Ep 33: On the grid

Explore graphs, grids and mapping with a focus on reading and writing location data using coordinate geometry. Grids and maps illustrate the concepts of parallel/perpendicular lines (axes or labelled number lines), ordered pairs and intersection points.


Conduct chance experiments: Year 9 – planning tool

This planning resource for Year 9 is for the topic of Conduct chance experiments. Students draw on what they have learnt about probabilities related to compound events and apply this knowledge in a variety of experiments. The use of digital tools and simulations allow for repeated practice of compound events and help to ...


Thumb wrestling tournament

In this introductory activity students use a simple thumb-wrestling tournament to analyse a series of matches in which there can only be one victor. Students work in small groups to explore different ways of mapping out the events of a tournament, introducing the concept of constructing sample spaces and tree diagrams as ...


TIMES Module 14: Statistics and Probability: chance, year 9 - teacher guide

This is a 19-page guide for teachers. This module continues the development of probability. A careful consideration of outcomes and equally likely outcomes is undertaken. In year 9, students consider situations involving two stages or two variables, including the special case of what are sometimes called two-step chance ...


Possible outcomes: Year 9 – planning tool

This planning resource for Year 9 is for the topic of Possible outcomes. Students are familiar with the language and concepts behind probability and possible outcomes. From here students focus their learning on using systematic approaches for various types of compound events before assigning probabilities to more complicated ...


Poker machines (simulation)

This lesson explores how poker machines work and what is meant by the term Return to Player (RTP) percentage. Students run simulations to determine how small betting amounts can lead to a large cumulative loss over time and examine how reinvesting profits or wins from playing the poker machine back into the machine has ...