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Listed under:  Chemical reactions  >  Bonding (Chemistry)  >  Molecules
Image

Bromine monofluoride molecule

This is a colour image of a model of a molecule of bromine monofluoride, BrF. In this model, atoms are represented by coloured spheres held together by grey rods, representing covalent bonds. The bromine monofluoride molecule contains one bromine atom (the brown sphere) and one fluorine atom (the blue-grey sphere).

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Oxygen molecule

This is a colour image of a model of a molecule of oxygen, O₂. In this model, two oxygen atoms are represented by red spheres held together by grey rods that represent a double covalent bond.

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Ethanol molecule

This is a colour image of a model of a molecule of ethanol, CH₃CH₂OH. In this model, atoms are represented by coloured spheres held together by grey rods that represent covalent bonds. The molecule contains two carbon atoms (the black spheres), one oxygen atom (the red sphere) and six hydrogen atoms (the grey-white spheres).

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Hydrogen molecule

This is a colour image of a model of a molecule of hydrogen, H₂. In this model, two hydrogen atoms are represented by grey-white spheres held together by a grey rod that represents a covalent bond.

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Iodine molecule

This is a colour image of a model of a molecule of iodine, I₂. In this model, two iodine atoms are represented by deep red spheres held together by a grey rod that represents a covalent bond.

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Water molecule

This is a colour image of a model of a molecule of water, H₂O. In this model, atoms are represented by coloured spheres held together by grey rods, representing covalent bonds. The water molecule contains one oxygen atom (the red sphere) and two hydrogen atoms (the grey-white spheres).

Video

Awake the mind with caffeine chemistry

Caffeine is the world's most popular drug, but what is it and how does our body respond to its presence? Watch this clip to see the chemical structure of caffeine and the three compounds it metabolises into. Find out which receptor in the brain caffeine binds to, and the overall impacts it has on brain function and activity.

Online

VisChem topic 6: molecular structure, shape and polarity

This web page contains ten animations of molecules and compound ions as well as nine QTVR objects showing organic molecules. The animations rotate the molecules to show their structure fully. The QTVR objects can be manipulated by the user so that, as well as being rotated, different ways of modelling the molecules can be seen.

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Water molecule showing polarity

This is a colour graphic representation of a water molecule. It depicts the structural formula of water superimposed on a space-filling model and an electron-density isosurface. The diagram is colour-coded to show the dipole nature of the molecule.

Video

Nano-engineering: science fiction or reality?

Explore the amazing field of nano-engineering. Imagine being able to construct molecular-sized machines that could do specific tasks like carrying out nano-surgery on damaged cell structures in your body. Decide for yourself what might be possible and what might just be science fiction.

Online

VisChem topic 14: structure and properties of carbon compounds

This web page contains QTVR objects showing aspects of the structure of selected organic molecules. The QTVR objects can be manipulated by the user so that, as well as being rotated, different ways of modelling the molecules can be seen.

Online

VisChem topic 11: dynamic chemical equilibrium

This web page contains a video, animations and a student worksheet investigating the dynamic equilibrium associated with the iron(III) thiocyanate complex. The animations show important molecular-level segments from the video.

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VisChem topic 12: acid-base reactions

This web page contains a video, animations and a student worksheet examining the proton-transfer reactions of acids and bases. Self-ionisation of water, acidity of hydrated metal ions, proton gain by ammonia molecules and proton loss from acetic acid are depicted. The animations show important molecular-level segments from ...

Online

VisChem topic 7: intermolecular forces

This web page contains animations demonstrating situations in which dispersion forces, ion-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding occur. Several animations show hydrated ions, and the effect of hydration on dissolving and reaction rates is discussed in explanatory text. A document containing lesson plans and student worksheets ...

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VisChem topic 10: reactions of carbon compounds

This web page contains animations showing reaction mechanisms for organic substitution, addition and elimination reactions. For most reactions there are two animations, one showing molecular models, and the other showing structural formulas with movement of electrons as bonds are rearranged.

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VisChem topic 2: dissolution of an ionic salt

This web page contains a video clip, animations and student worksheets exploring the dissolving of ionic solids in water. The video clip has both filmed and animated scenes that compare the dissolving of sodium chloride with melting and show how the dissolving process can be represented by chemical equations. Important ...

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VisChem topic 3: precipitation of an ionic salt

This web page contains a video clip, animations and student worksheets exploring the precipitation of silver chloride. The video has both filmed and animated scenes showing the process at observational and molecular levels. It explains how the reaction can be represented by a chemical equation.

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VisChem topic 8: chemical properties of water and aqueous solutions

This web page contains video clips, animations and student worksheets that investigate the chemical properties of water and aqueous solutions. The major topics cover the structure and bonding of water, acids and bases, dissolving, ionic solutions, precipitation and complexation.

Online

VisChem topic1: chemical bonding in pure substances in different states

This web page contains a collection of animations depicting copper, sodium chloride, water and oxygen at the molecular level. The animations show the arrangement of atoms, molecules and ions in solid, liquid and gaseous states as well as illustrating changes of state. Two animations demonstrate alternative methods of representing ...

Online

VisChem topic 9: physical properties of water

This web page contains a video, animations and a student worksheet exploring the influence of structure and bonding on the physical properties of water. Two animations showing structure and bonding in oxygen are provided for comparison.