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A flogging for a pair of boots

Times were tough for prisoners in Britain in the 1800s. People were 'transported' for committing even minor crimes. In the colonies, conditions for convicts were harsh and punishments were even worse. This clip is one in a series of four.

Interactive resource

Biography: Federation people: John West

Investigate the role of John West, anti-transportation leader, Congregational Church minister and 'Sydney Morning Herald' editor, in the events leading up to Federation. Examine two different types of biographies of West: one short and the other more detailed. Inspect examples of how he was visually depicted in his time. ...


Landmarks in aviation

This collection of digital curriculum resources comprising mostly archival footage and images explores aviation from a historical perspective. It is organised in seven categories - first flight by box kite; first controlled powered flights; flying across the English Channel; first flight from England to Australia, 1919; ...


Steam transportation in Australia

Steam generated the principal form of mechanical power for Australia's transport systems from the second half of the 19th century until the widespread adoption of the internal combustion engine in the 20th century. This collection of digital curriculum resources is organised into six categories - steam trains; river steamers; ...


Horse transport in Australia

This collection of 21 digital curriculum resources focuses on how horses were used to transport people in 19th- and 20th-century Australia. It is organised into six categories - riding horses; horsedrawn carriages; coaches; carts and wagons; horsedrawn trams; and horsedrawn transport in action. The collection contains paintings, ...


Early cars and trucks in Australia

This collection of 21 digital curriculum resources focuses on cars and trucks in Australia during the first three decades of the 20th century. The collection contains images of actual vehicles in museum collections as well as photographs and archival footage of cars and various types of trucks in action. The collection ...


'Flemington Melbourne', c1856

This watercolour by Samuel Charles Brees shows a long line of men, including prospective Chinese miners, passing along Mount Alexander Road in Flemington. They are at the beginning of their journey to the goldmining areas of central Victoria during the height of the gold rush in Australia in about 1856. On the right of ...


Illustration of Chinese miners at Mount Alexander goldfield, 1863

This print from a wood engraving shows Chinese miners working on a layered excavation site on the Mount Alexander gold diggings near Castlemaine, Victoria, in 1863. The men are wearing conical hats and collarless loose-fitting shirts. At the centre and right of the image are a long flume and possibly a sluice box, and there ...


Washing tailings, c1870s

This chromolithograph shows seven Chinese miners panning and sluicing for gold during the gold rush in Australia in the 1870s. The miners all wear blue trousers, and five have matching blue shirts. There is a whim at the right of the image. The white frame of the image bears the captions 'WASHING TAILINGS' and 'No. 9'. ...


'John Alloo's Chinese Restaurant, Main Road, Ballaarat, 1853'

This lithograph by Samuel Thomas Gill shows John Alloo's Chinese Restaurant on Main Road in Ballarat, Victoria. It depicts the front entrance to the restaurant and a building next to it called Pipings Store. On the street is a man on a horse, another man smoking a pipe and a third carrying a water bucket and spade on a ...


'Chow Chow (Chinamen on Ballarat)', 1854

This watercolour, pen and ink sketch depicts Chinese goldminers on the Ballarat goldfields in Victoria during the 1850s gold rush. The miners are dressed in Chinese clothing. Two men stand talking outside a canvas tent and two others are seated in front of the tent next to a gold-washing cradle used to sift gold. The left ...


Charles Kingsford Smith

Charles Kingsford Smith (1897-1935) is Australia's most renowned aviator, the holder of more 'firsts' than any other. This collection of 24 digital curriculum resources about his life and achievements is organised into nine categories beginning with his war service and concluding with the amazing trans-Tasman attempt of ...


Flying in Australia

This collection of digital curriculum resources focuses on the history of flying in Australia as a means of travel, exploration, recreation, adventure and as a cause of death. It is organised into six categories - first flights in Australia; female pilots; importance of the Moth planes; seaplanes; Qantas; and the Flying ...


Transportation by bullock team

This collection of digital curriculum resources focuses on the use of bullocks for transporting heavy loads in 19th- and 20th-century Australia. It is organised into six categories: in action on film; hauling timber; 'bringing down' the wool; on the farm and on the road; idealised in art; and an early mechanised alternative. ...


'Bound for Botany Bay' - transportation of convicts to New South Wales

This is a collection of 11 digital curriculum resources focusing on the transportation of convicts to the colony of New South Wales. The collection is organised into four categories - the hulks; the First Fleet; the colony's penal stations; and items forming part of the uniforms believed to have been worn by convicts in ...

Teacher resource

The First Fleet: age of convicts - unit of work

Students develop their knowledge of statistical measures, such as mean and median, by examining a dataset about the First Fleet (M007943 'The First Fleet - dataset'). They use the dataset to determine the age of convicts leaving England on the First Fleet, and they construct tables and graphs and complete data investigations. ...

Teacher resource

The First Fleet: cost of crime - unit of work

Students develop their knowledge of summary statistics, such as the mode and median of data sets, by examining a dataset about the First Fleet (M007943 'The First Fleet - dataset'). They use data about the cost of crime to construct tables and graphs, and to complete data investigations. Students complete these activities ...


Sam Yin's wife and son, 1912

This is a sepia-toned black-and-white photograph of a Chinese woman and boy, taken somewhere in China in or around 1912.


Convicts from hulks, Woolwich, England, 1779

This is a hand-coloured engraving of convicts from the hulks at Woolwich labouring in the docks area. Two hulks are anchored offshore with rowboats shuttling to and fro. Beneath the image is inscribed 'A View near WOOLWICH in KENT showing the Employment of the CONVICTS from the Hulks'. The engraving measures 29.8 cm x 44.9 cm.


Prison hulks at Portsmouth, England, c1814

This is an oil painting on canvas, measuring 50.4 cm x 98.6 cm, of at least a dozen hulks moored at Portsmouth Harbour, England, around 1814.