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Learning objects Interpreting changes of state

TLF ID L9122

Heat ice and record the temperature and states of water at specified times. Plot a graph of temperature against time and relate sections of the graph to the states of water. Observe animations of water particles over time and explain the shape of the graph in terms of particle theory. Predict the shape of the graph when water vapour is cooled to solid ice. Observe physical and particle animations of the changes that occur during cooling and confirm prediction of graph shape. This learning object is a combination of two objects in the same series.

Educational details

Key learning objectives
  • Students observe the behaviour of water particles during heating and cooling and explain properties of solid, liquid and gaseous water, and the processes involved in changing state, in terms of kinetic theory.
  • Students record and graph changes over time as water is heated, and predict the graph that will be obtained if water is cooled.
  • Students interpret and explain the shape of the temperature–time graphs obtained when water is heated and cooled.
Educational value
  • Demonstrates how particle theory and the kinetic theory of matter can be used to explain properties of water and the physical changes that occur when it is heated and cooled.
  • Provides physical and particle level animations showing water as it changes state between its solid, liquid and gas forms.
  • Enables students to conduct a virtual experiment in which they heat water and record, graph and interpret the observed changes.
  • Includes options to print the data tables, graphs and summaries describing the changes in water when it is heated or cooled.
  • Provides additional extension questions as an optional printout.
Year level

7; 8

Learning area
  • science
  • Science/Science inquiry skills
  • Science/Science understanding
    Student activity
    • Interactives;
    • Experiment;
    • Analysis;
    • Multiple choice questions

    Other details

    • Publisher
    • Date of contribution: 28 Jan 2014
    • Organisation: Education Services Australia
    • Address: Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia
    • URL:
    • Technical implementer
    • Organisation: CWA New Media
    • Address: Wellington New Zealand
    • URL:
    • Subject matter expert
    • Name: Jenny Sharwood
    • Address: Balwyn North VIC 3104 Australia
    • Script writer
    • Name: Rebecca Cox
    • Organisation: CWA New Media
    • Address: Wellington New Zealand
    • URL:
    • Educational validator
    • Name: Denis Goodrum
    • Organisation: University of Canberra
    • Address: Canberra ACT Australia
    • URL:
    Access profile
    • Colour independence
    • Device independence
    • Hearing independence
    • Generic
    Learning resource type
    • Interactive Resource
    • Microsoft Internet Explorer - minimum version: 8.0 (MS Windows) - maximum version: 9.0 (MS Windows)
    • Firefox - minimum version: (MS-Windows)
    • Safari - minimum version: 5.1 (MacOS)
    Operating systems
    • MacOS - minimum version: 10.6
    • MS-Windows - minimum version: XP - maximum version: 7
    • © Education Services Australia Ltd, 2013, except where indicated under Acknowledgements.