Learning objects Matter and evaporation: below zero

TLF ID L1491

Experiment with phase transformations of water. Heat a block of ice to just below freezing point. Predict changes to the molecular structure and molecular motion. Look closely at movement of the water molecules, especially at the surface. Explain why the molecules remain tightly bonded. This learning object is one in a series of three objects. The series is also packaged as a combined learning object.

Educational details

Key learning objectives
  • Students relate rising temperature of a substance to the increasing speed of its molecules.
  • Students describe the changes in molecular structure accompanying changes in state from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas.
  • Students identify that temperature remains constant until a change of state is complete.
Educational value
  • Students explore the changes that occur in speed and arrangement of molecules as water is heated from below freezing to boiling point.
  • Students choose between two hypotheses in each investigation.
  • Simulations are accessible for further observation after feedback has been given.
Year level


Learning area
  • science
  • Science/Chemistry
  • Science/Science inquiry skills
  • Science/Science understanding
    • Science/Liquids
    • Science/Molecules
    • Science/Motion
    • Science/States of matter
    • Science/Temperature
    • Analysis;
    • Application;
    • Comprehension;
    • Knowledge
    Student activity
    • Interactives;
    • Experiment;
    • Analysis;
    • Modelling
    Learning design
    • Experiential learning;
    • Independent learning;
    • Problem solving;
    • Visual learning

    Other details

    • Script writer
    • Name: Erica Dale
    • Organisation: Tungaroo Software
    • Address: Sydney NSW Australia
    • Subject matter expert
    • Name: Graham Coghill
    • Address: Marcus Beach QLD Australia
    • Technical implementer
    • Publisher
    • Date of contribution: 28 Jan 2014
    • Organisation: Education Services Australia
    • Address: Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia
    • URL: http://www.esa.edu.au/
    Access profile
    • Colour independence
    • Device independence
    • Hearing independence
    Learning resource type
    • Interactive Resource
    • Microsoft Internet Explorer - minimum version: 8.0 (MS-Windows) - maximum version: 9.0 (MS-Windows)
    • Firefox - minimum version: (MS-Windows)
    • Safari - minimum version: 5.1 (MacOS)
    Operating systems
    • MacOS - minimum version: 10.6
    • MS-Windows - minimum version: XP - maximum version: 7
    • © Education Services Australia Ltd, 2013, except where indicated under Acknowledgements.