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# Dice duels: fair or unfair?

TLF ID L2635

Test dice to see if they have been weighted (loaded) to favour one of the six numbers. Explore how many rolls are needed for you to be reasonably sure of a conclusion. Compare the shape of theoretical data distributions with experimental results. This learning object is one in a series of 11 objects.

#### Educational details

Key learning objectives
• Students collect and handle data about random events to test conjectures about variation and bias.
• Students interpret frequency graphs to compare experimental results with theoretical probabilities.
• Students compare the shape of theoretical and experimentally derived data distributions in situations where there is bias.
• Students relate the shape of data distributions to statements about sample variation, sample size and bias.
Educational value
• Provides scenarios for students to use dice as a means to explore relationships between bias, proportions, sample size, random variation and even statistical distributions.
• Demonstrates that conclusions based on small sample sizes can be incorrect due to random variation.
• Automatically collates experimental results and displays them as frequency graphs.
Year level

6

Learning area
• mathematics
Strand
• Mathematics/Statistics and probability
Concept
• Mathematics/Probability
• Mathematics/Data interpretation
• Mathematics/Bias
• Mathematics/Conjectures
• Mathematics/Investigation
• Mathematics/Graphs
• Mathematics/Experiments
• Mathematics/Random events
• Mathematics/Sampling
• Mathematics/Statistics
Skill
• Analysis;
• Application;
• Comprehension;
• Knowledge
Student activity
• Interactives;
• Experiment;
• Estimation;
• Analysis;
• Modelling
Learning design
• Experiential learning;
• Independent learning;
• Problem solving;
• Visual learning

#### Other details

Contributors
• Technical implementer
• Script writer
• Name: Erica Dale
• Organisation: Tungaroo Software
• Address: Manly NSW 2095 Australia
• Subject matter expert
• Name: Howard Reeves
• Address: Lindisfarne TAS 7015 Australia
• Educational validator
• Name: Graham Jones
• Publisher
• Date of contribution: 20 Sep 2013
• Organisation: Education Services Australia
• Address: Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia
• URL: http://www.esa.edu.au/
Access profile
• Colour independence
• Device independence
• Hearing independence
Learning resource type
• Interactive Resource
Browsers
• Microsoft Internet Explorer - minimum version: 8.0 (MS-Windows) - maximum version: 9.0 (MS-Windows)
• Firefox - minimum version: (MS-Windows)
• Safari - minimum version: 5.1 (MacOS)
Operating systems
• MacOS - minimum version: 10.6
• MS-Windows - minimum version: x - maximum version: 7
Rights
• © Education Services Australia Ltd, 2013, except where indicated under Acknowledgements.