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History / Year 9 / Historical Knowledge and Understanding

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

Changes in the way of life of a group(s) of people who moved to Australia in this period, such as free settlers on the frontier in Australia (ACDSEH084)

  • investigating the experiences of a specific group of arrivals to Australia (for example, convicts in Sydney, Hobart, Brisbane; or free settlers in Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth or Darwin)
  • describing the impact of this group on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples of the region
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
  • Intercultural understanding Intercultural understanding
  • Personal and social capability Personal and social capability
ScOT terms

Australian history,  Social history,  Migration,  Convicts,  Penal transportation,  Colonies


Looking after the land

This is a resource about the environmental, climatic, natural disaster and pest challenges faced during settlement in Australia. It includes details about land management techniques; extreme and unique weather conditions, including floods and droughts; bushfires; animal and plant pests; and water management. Text, images, ...


Journeys and Connections

This resource displays objects related to stories of migration to Australia. Students locate and research relevant objects in their own community and create a digital story of migration. The resource uses objects from the Australian Journeys exhibition at the National Museum of Australia.


Life on the land

This is a resource about life on the land in Australia in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. It includes details about land grants allocation, the establishment of Australia's first farms, the condition of the land, the processes used to farm the land, and case studies about the early farming families in Australia. The ...


Objects through timeline: 50,000 years before present

This is a 26-page fact sheet that provides a comprehensive overview of migration to Australia from the first arrival of humans to 2006. It includes details about the major waves of international and internal migration, key events and policies, and individuals and groups that have made significant contributions to the development ...

Teacher resource

Indigenous Stories about War and Invasion

This is a website about Indigenous experiences of invasion and war during the British invasion, World War I and World War II. The resource is presented in three sections: Introductory information; Story Objects; and Story Education Resources. There are eight story objects that tell the stories of individuals, events and ...

Interactive Resource

EnviroNorth: outback mobs learning module

This is a multilayered website about the outback. It includes an interactive tool titled Outback Mobs and a unit of work for teachers. The unit of work includes a teaching guide; curriculum links; and a bookshelf listing non-fiction and narrative books about the pastoral industry in northern Australia. The interactive component ...


Australian Agricultural Company

This is a resource about the Australian Agriculture Company, Australia's oldest company, from its establishment in 1824 to the 20th century. It includes details about the initial purpose of the company, the key figures and families involved, the important decisions and the development of Australia's agriculture industry. ...

Moving Image

Ned Kelly confronts his judge

How do the lives of Ned Kelly and Redmond Barry reflect the contrasting experiences of those who came to Australia as convicts and free settlers? Kelly was the son of an Irish convict and claimed to be fighting against the injustices of the old world revisited in the new. Barry had arrived in Melbourne as a free Irish immigrant. ...


Rural communities: community events

This is a website about rural life in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries; there is a particular focus on community activities that brought people together to socialise and as a boost for morale. It includes information about community events, social and recreational activities and key organisations and societies for ...

Teacher resource

Journey’s end

This is website about emigrants arriving by boat to Victoria in the 19th and early 20th century. The resource has three sections: Introductory information; Story Objects; and Story Education Resources. There are 21 Story Objects, including a video and images with captions that depict the journey and way of life at this ...


Working the land

This is a resource about the development of the agriculture industry and the promotion of further immigration to increase settlement in Australia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. It includes information about the spread of settlement across Australia; the development of the agricultural industry; a collection of advertising ...


Station life and homesteading

This is a resource about farming life at Pastoralist Stations and Homesteads in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. It includes information about the leasing of pastoral stations, the management of livestock, the stock workers and their families, and family life residing at homesteads. The resource includes text, ...

Moving Image

The Duracks: an Australian dynasty

What sort of relationships did outback Australia's early colonists have with Indigenous people? Irish immigrant Patrick Durack (1834-98) was already a successful pastoralist when he took control of vast lands in the Kimberley region in the 1880s. In this clip, discover what life was like for generations of Duracks, particularly ...

Tablet friendly (Interactive resource)

Patrick Brennan: the legend of Ned Kelly

Play the role of a reporter in 1881. Produce a feature article for a newspaper about the life of Ned Kelly. Review a brief history. Interview his friends and enemies. Gather evidence of social and political influences that affected Ned Kelly’s life. Compile an article that explores the myth and decide whether Ned Kelly ...


'Eureka riot 17th October', 1854

This is a watercolour, pen and ink sketch by Charles Alphonse Doudiet that depicts some of the thousands of goldminers who gathered and subsequently rioted at Bentley's Eureka Hotel in Ballarat, Victoria, on 17 October 1854. A small line of soldiers is in the foreground outnumbered by a huge crowd of protesting miners. ...


Map of Australian colonies, c1859-61

This is a hand-coloured map of Australia, printed between about 1859 and 1861, showing boundaries for what were then the colonies of Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria. There is an area labelled 'North Australia', which includes the present-day Northern Territory and Queensland within the same ...

Teacher resource

Migration to Australia - unit of work

One of the significant stories in Australia's colonial and post-colonial history is that of the migration of people, and the influences these newcomers have had and continue to have on existing Australian society. By examining different eras in Australia's history through a variety of sources, students can begin to understand ...


Chinese quarter on the Ballarat gold fields, 1868

This is a wood engraving, dated 18 July 1868, by A C Cooke from the 'Illustrated Australian News'. It shows a scene on the gold fields of Ballarat in Victoria with the Chinese quarter in the foreground. Under a cloudy sky, industrial chimneys send up clouds of smoke on the right-hand side, and the houses of the community ...


Map of Australian settlements, c1854

This is a hand-coloured map of Australia showing boundaries indicating the settlements and provinces that existed in 1851. In particular, the map shows detailed settlements in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria, with dates and names indicating when areas were discovered, and by whom. Some of the current names ...


Riot or Revolution, 2005: Beginnings of Eureka

This clip shows scenes and events leading up to the Eureka Stockade rebellion in 1854. The clip opens with an image of troopers and a narrator introduces an actor playing Robert Rede, the Gold Commissioner at Ballarat, Victoria. Rede declares his determination to 'crush' the miners and their protests against the miner's ...


Drawing of Caroline Chisholm

This is a black-and-white drawing of the 19th-century humanitarian and social reformer Caroline Chisholm, shown sitting in front of a covered table reading some papers, with a quill pen and books to the right. On the wall behind is a partial drawing of what may be a sea chart or map. Chisholm has been drawn wearing a dark-coloured ...


Map of Australia, c1880

This is a coloured map entitled 'Australia', produced about 1880 by the British cartographer, John Bartholomew. It measures 48.5 cm x 59.0 cm. Different colours are used to distinguish the six British colonies. The map identifies hundreds of places, geographical features and waters around the continent. In the top left- ...

Interactive resource

Making a difference: Yagan

Explore perspectives on Australia’s Indigenous heritage through photos and text about Yagan, a Noongar leader who lived in the Swan River region of Western Australia (c.1795–1833). Trace his story, including his conflicts with settlers and efforts to protect his people. Investigate how the government of the time handled ...