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History / Year 9 / Historical Knowledge and Understanding

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

The short and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples during this period (ACDSEH085)

  • evaluating the effects of the movement of peoples on the indigenous and immigrant populations
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
  • Intercultural understanding Intercultural understanding
  • Personal and social capability Personal and social capability
ScOT terms

Migration,  Penal transportation,  Slavery


Objects through timeline: 50,000 years before present

This is a 26-page fact sheet that provides a comprehensive overview of migration to Australia from the first arrival of humans to 2006. It includes details about the major waves of international and internal migration, key events and policies, and individuals and groups that have made significant contributions to the development ...

Moving Image

Sluicing and panning for gold

How does a small prospector mine gold? Most modern goldmining is conducted by big companies with heavy machinery. But in this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters meets a prospector whose methods and tools differ only a little from those used by Chinese miners at Pine Creek a century earlier.

Teacher resource

Journey’s end

This is website about emigrants arriving by boat to Victoria in the 19th and early 20th century. The resource has three sections: Introductory information; Story Objects; and Story Education Resources. There are 21 Story Objects, including a video and images with captions that depict the journey and way of life at this ...

Moving Image

The Duracks: an Australian dynasty

What sort of relationships did outback Australia's early colonists have with Indigenous people? Irish immigrant Patrick Durack (1834-98) was already a successful pastoralist when he took control of vast lands in the Kimberley region in the 1880s. In this clip, discover what life was like for generations of Duracks, particularly ...

Moving Image

Australian History Timeline

This is a multilayered website featuring an interactive historical timeline of Australia divided into decades post 1770s, as well as a section on pre 1770s Indigenous and non-Indigenous history. The home page is made of images and timeline dates that hyperlink to further information on each decade. Each decade has links ...


What impacts has immigration had on Australia?

In this unit of work students investigate stories of immigration and the impact migrants have had on Australian society over time. This unit of work uses the objects and displays from the National Museum of Australia's previous Horizons gallery (now replaced by the Australian Journeys gallery) and other Museum exhibitions ...

Interactive resource

Discovering democracy: an Australian nation

Interact with a slideshow of images and text to explore the emergence of a distinctly Australian identity in place of a British identity. Investigate the changes that resulted in a shift to a national vision. Identify the various events in colonial history that brought about this growing national vision and the issues which ...

Interactive resource

Discovering democracy: people and events of the first parliament

Interact with a slideshow of images and text to examine the role of particular individuals who were involved in not only the ceremonies but also the business of Australia’s first parliament. Investigate the library to find out more about the issues which the first parliament dealt with and its response to these issues. ...

Teacher resource

Migration to Australia - unit of work

One of the significant stories in Australia's colonial and post-colonial history is that of the migration of people, and the influences these newcomers have had and continue to have on existing Australian society. By examining different eras in Australia's history through a variety of sources, students can begin to understand ...

Interactive resource

Discovering democracy: exclusion

Interact with a slideshow to examine the reasons people of various ethnic backgrounds came to Australia in the 19th century. Investigate the library to find out more about the characteristics of the lives of these immigrants and the difficulties they endured in Australia. Examine the attitudes towards non-white immigrants ...

Interactive resource

Discovering democracy: Australia and the world

Interact with a slideshow of images and text to explore early Australia’s emerging place in world events and her attitudes to issues such as European expansion in the Pacific and the growing power of Asian nations. Examine the nature of early contacts between Australia and the USA. Explore the impact of Australia’s fear ...

Interactive resource

Discovering democracy: who were we?

Interact with a slideshow of images and text to examine the nature of the Australian population in 1901 and find out about the many kinds of people who made up the Australian population. Investigate the library to find out more about the position of various groups of people, like the Chinese and Indigenous Australians in ...


First Fleet convict love token, 1786-87

This is a hand-engraved circular copper disc that belonged to convict Thomas Tilley, who came to Australia in the First Fleet. One side of the circular disc has the following words engraved on it: 'THOMAS / TILLEY TR / ANSPORTED / 29 JULY 1785 / FOR SIGNING / A NOTE SENT / THE HULKS / JAN Y 24 1786'. The other side has ...


Chinese miner at wattle-and-daub hut, c1900

This is a black-and-white glass lantern slide, measuring 8.2 cm x 8.2 cm, showing a Chinese miner outside his hut. The image is titled: 'Chinese miner outside a wattle-and-daub hut with a dog'. The man is wearing Western-style dress and is seated with a black dog by his side. The photograph, taken by W H Ferguson, is part ...


Landmarks: people and places across Australia

This resource features the Landmarks gallery, which traces a broad history of Australia since British colonisation in the late 18th century. The exhibition explores ten big themes in the country's past through the stories of Australian places and the people who have lived there. It examines how people have engaged with ...

Interactive Resource

Bound for South Australia 1836

This is a website rich in primary and secondary sources tracing the voyages of nine ships from Britain bound for the newly created province of South Australia between February and December 1836, and the experiences of those on board. The website contains extensive historical background, information about a range of topics ...


Convicts from hulks, Woolwich, England, 1779

This is a hand-coloured engraving of convicts from the hulks at Woolwich labouring in the docks area. Two hulks are anchored offshore with rowboats shuttling to and fro. Beneath the image is inscribed 'A View near WOOLWICH in KENT showing the Employment of the CONVICTS from the Hulks'. The engraving measures 29.8 cm x 44.9 cm.


Arriving during the gold rush in Melbourne, c1860s

This is a sepia-toned wood engraving made by Frederick Grosse (1828-94) from a sketch by Nicholas Chevalier (1828-1902), and titled 'Emigrants landing at Queen's Wharf Melbourne'. It measures 16.4 cm x 25.3 cm and was first published in an illustrated newspaper in the 1860s, during the final years of the gold rush.


Italian migrants and a home of their own

This clip describes how postwar Italian migrant Angelina De Rossi became less unhappy about being in Australia once she owned her own home. It shows images of Angelina, her husband Angelo and their children living in poor conditions near Griffith as she tells of hiding her unhappiness. Angelina then describes how after ...


Beneath the surface: social reports as primary sources

This resource is about a report on the public heath conditions of Leeds in 1842 by a medical doctor, Robert Baker. It provides a background to the report along with information on Robert Baker and his credentials for undertaking the investigation. Extracts from the report describe the poor conditions of sanitation, the ...