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History / Year 9 / Historical Knowledge and Understanding

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

Experiences of non-Europeans in Australia prior to the 1900s (such as the Japanese, Chinese, South Sea Islanders, Afghans)  (ACDSEH089)

Elaborations
  • outlining the migration of Chinese to the goldfields in Australia in the nineteenth century and attitudes towards the Chinese as revealed in cartoons (for example, The Mongolian Octopus)
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
  • Intercultural understanding Intercultural understanding
  • Personal and social capability Personal and social capability
Cross-curriculum priorities
ScOT terms

Indentured workers,  Racial discrimination,  Discrimination,  Migrant labour,  Migration

Collection

Indentured immigrants in Australia

This is a collection of 25 digital curriculum resources focusing on immigrants who came to Australia for a fixed period under contract or indenture in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. The collection is organised into three groups - Chinese indentured agricultural and skilled workers; Pacific Islander ...

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Muslim journeys

This is a rich resource about the lives of Muslim people who came to Australia from Asia and Europe in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Developed by the National Archives of Australia, it consists of a historical essay by Hanifa Deen illustrated by a collection of archival documents and images. The resource has five tabs: ...

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Three generations of Pine Creek Ah Toys

Many Chinese migrants arrived in Australia in the late 1880s during the gold rush. Follow the story of one Chinese migrant and three generations of his descendants in Australia's Top End.

Interactive Resource

CLab21: The Chinese Question

A collaborative resource engaging students in 21st Century Learning skills supporting the use of Google Apps in the classroom. This Stage 5 History resource examines the experiences of Chinese migrants in Colonial Australia. Students play the role of a committee established to investigate the causes of tension between Chinese ...

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Sluicing and panning for gold

How does a small prospector mine gold? Most modern goldmining is conducted by big companies with heavy machinery. But in this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters meets a prospector whose methods and tools differ only a little from those used by Chinese miners at Pine Creek a century earlier.

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Attitudes towards Chinese miners

Why did Chinese goldminers leave the Northern Territory's Pine Creek goldfields in the early years of the 20th century? In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters investigates how this fascinating chapter in Australia's history came to an end.

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Archaeological evidence of Chinese miners

See the rugged outback around a small Northern Territory town and hear about the people who travelled from Asia to work there. In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters visits Pine Creek's historic goldfields and encounters traces of Chinese goldminers who worked on the remote northern ...

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Chinese coffins lined with gold?

What became of the thousands of Chinese goldminers who worked the Pine Creek goldfields in the Northern Territory in the late 19th century? In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters discusses the reasons why the Chinese miners departed, leaving only traces of their industry and way of life.

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Chinese miners in Pine Creek, NT

Imagine leaving your homeland to spend years labouring in a harsh and unfamiliar landscape in the hope of an elusive and uncertain reward. In this clip from a1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters looks at why Chinese miners came to Pine Creek in the Northern Territory and how they survived.

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Former Pacific Island indentured labourers waiting for deportation, 1906

This black-and-white photograph shows Pacific Islanders mustered at the Cairns Court House in Queensland awaiting a medical examination prior to their deportation under the Australian Government's 1901 Pacific Island Labourers Act. The group, including a woman, some children and an Islander holding a bicycle, would probably ...

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Pacific Islander labourers clearing land, c1895

This is a black-and-white photograph showing nine Pacific Islander men using picks and axes to clear undergrowth and small trees from a clearing in a thickly vegetated area at Farnborough in central Queensland. The men are bare-chested, hatless and barefoot, with some wearing sarong-like garments. A white man stands in ...

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Pacific Islander women working in cane fields, c1890

This sepia photograph shows eight indentured Pacific Islander female labourers preparing to hoe weeds in rows of cane at Hambledon Mill, near Cairns in Queensland. The women and girls, some barefoot, stand at the edge of the cane, which is above head height. The foreground is bare soil and a thickly wooded hill rises in ...

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Mining artefacts lost and found

Imagine working very long hours, breaking rock under the scorching sun in the hope of finding gold. In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters continues his investigation into the history of the Chinese miners who worked the Pine Creek goldfields in the late 19th century.

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Pacific Islander labourers hoeing a cane field, c1902

This black-and-white photograph shows indentured Pacific Islanders methodically hoeing weeds from a large sugar-cane field at Herbert River in north-eastern Queensland. They wear Western-style clothes and hats. A white man, only just visible on the left and facing the Islanders, stands in front of the line of labourers, ...

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Pacific Islander labourers in the Mackay District, late 1800s

This posed black-and-white photograph shows indentured Pacific Islanders by their grass hut homes, probably on a Mackay sugar plantation in Queensland. Some are seated on logs or rough timber benches and one woman can also be seen. They are dressed in Western-style clothes. More huts can be seen on the cleared rise in the ...

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Pacific Islander labourers loading sugar cane onto a punt, c1896

This is a posed black-and-white photograph showing about ten Pacific Islander labourers involved in loading harvested sugar cane onto a river punt for transport to a Bundaberg sugar mill. A horsedrawn 'German' wagon has been reversed onto a high wooden jetty and the labourers have off-loaded some of the cane it was carrying ...

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Pacific Islander labourers outside slab-hut dwellings, late 1800s

This is a black-and-white photograph showing indentured Pacific Islanders and their families posing by their slab-hut homes, probably on a coastal Queensland sugar plantation. They are wearing Western-style clothes, with the women in long skirts and the men wearing jackets and trousers. The huts appear to have been constructed ...

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Pacific Islander labourers planting sugar cane, Mackay, 1870s

This is a black-and-white photograph showing large groups of poorly dressed indentured Pacific Islanders planting sugar cane on a plantation at Mackay in Queensland. Fourteen or more Pacific Islanders are manually placing sugar-cane cuttings at regular intervals in long furrows. Two mounted white men oversee their work ...

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Pacific Islanders arriving at Bundaberg, 1895

The black-and-white photograph shows Pacific Islander men and women arriving in the sugar port of Bundaberg after being recruited to work as indentured labourers on Queensland's sugar plantations. The posed shot shows more than 60 Pacific Islander men, women and boys and one European on the deck of a schooner at the dock. ...

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Pacific Islanders at irrigation channels, c1905

This sepia photograph shows around 20 Pacific Islander men posed on either side of a narrow irrigation channel in a cane field at Bingera Plantation near Bundaberg in Queensland. Some are holding long-handled hoes or shovels. A junction of the irrigation channel is visible in the foreground with equipment necessary to divert ...