History / Year 9 / Historical Knowledge and Understanding

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

Experiences of non-Europeans in Australia prior to the 1900s (such as the Japanese, Chinese, South Sea Islanders, Afghans)  (ACDSEH089)

Elaborations
  • outlining the migration of Chinese to the goldfields in Australia in the nineteenth century and attitudes towards the Chinese as revealed in cartoons (for example, The Mongolian Octopus)
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
  • Intercultural understanding Intercultural understanding
  • Personal and social capability Personal and social capability
Cross-curriculum priorities
ScOT terms

Indentured workers,  Racial discrimination,  Discrimination,  Migrant labour,  Migration

Collection

Indentured immigrants in Australia

This is a collection of 25 digital curriculum resources focusing on immigrants who came to Australia for a fixed period under contract or indenture in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. The collection is organised into three groups - Chinese indentured agricultural and skilled workers; Pacific Islander ...

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Three generations of Pine Creek Ah Toys

Many Chinese migrants arrived in Australia in the late 1880s during the gold rush. Follow the story of one Chinese migrant and three generations of his descendants in Australia's Top End.

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Muslim journeys

This is a rich resource about the lives of Muslim people who came to Australia from Asia and Europe in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Developed by the National Archives of Australia, it consists of a historical essay by Hanifa Deen illustrated by a collection of archival documents and images. The resource has five tabs: ...

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Mining artefacts lost and found

Imagine working very long hours, breaking rock under the scorching sun in the hope of finding gold. In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters continues his investigation into the history of the Chinese miners who worked the Pine Creek goldfields in the late 19th century.

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Attitudes towards Chinese miners

Why did Chinese goldminers leave the Northern Territory's Pine Creek goldfields in the early years of the 20th century? In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters investigates how this fascinating chapter in Australia's history came to an end.

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Pacific Islander women working in cane fields, c1890

This sepia photograph shows eight indentured Pacific Islander female labourers preparing to hoe weeds in rows of cane at Hambledon Mill, near Cairns in Queensland. The women and girls, some barefoot, stand at the edge of the cane, which is above head height. The foreground is bare soil and a thickly wooded hill rises in ...

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Pacific Islander labourers planting sugar cane, Mackay, 1870s

This is a black-and-white photograph showing large groups of poorly dressed indentured Pacific Islanders planting sugar cane on a plantation at Mackay in Queensland. Fourteen or more Pacific Islanders are manually placing sugar-cane cuttings at regular intervals in long furrows. Two mounted white men oversee their work ...

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Pacific Islander labourers in the Mackay District, late 1800s

This posed black-and-white photograph shows indentured Pacific Islanders by their grass hut homes, probably on a Mackay sugar plantation in Queensland. Some are seated on logs or rough timber benches and one woman can also be seen. They are dressed in Western-style clothes. More huts can be seen on the cleared rise in the ...

Interactive Resource

CLab21: The Chinese Question

A collaborative resource engaging students in 21st Century Learning skills supporting the use of Google Apps in the classroom. This Stage 5 History resource examines the experiences of Chinese migrants in Colonial Australia. Students play the role of a committee established to investigate the causes of tension between Chinese ...

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Australia's Afghan cameleers

This is an online article produced by Australian Geographical Society (AGS) on the Afghan and Muslim camel drivers who took part in the exploration and subsequent trade connecting the interior of Australia in the late 19th and early 20th century. The article outlines the history of cameleers across various parts of Australia, ...

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Sluicing and panning for gold

How does a small prospector mine gold? Most modern goldmining is conducted by big companies with heavy machinery. But in this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters meets a prospector whose methods and tools differ only a little from those used by Chinese miners at Pine Creek a century earlier.

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Chinese coffins lined with gold?

What became of the thousands of Chinese goldminers who worked the Pine Creek goldfields in the Northern Territory in the late 19th century? In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters discusses the reasons why the Chinese miners departed, leaving only traces of their industry and way of life.

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Chinese miners in Pine Creek, NT

Imagine leaving your homeland to spend years labouring in a harsh and unfamiliar landscape in the hope of an elusive and uncertain reward. In this clip from a1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters looks at why Chinese miners came to Pine Creek in the Northern Territory and how they survived.

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Former Pacific Island indentured labourers waiting for deportation, 1906

This black-and-white photograph shows Pacific Islanders mustered at the Cairns Court House in Queensland awaiting a medical examination prior to their deportation under the Australian Government's 1901 Pacific Island Labourers Act. The group, including a woman, some children and an Islander holding a bicycle, would probably ...

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Archaeological evidence of Chinese miners

See the rugged outback around a small Northern Territory town and hear about the people who travelled from Asia to work there. In this clip from a 1981 episode of A Big Country, journalist Chris Masters visits Pine Creek's historic goldfields and encounters traces of Chinese goldminers who worked on the remote northern ...

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Pacific Islander labourers outside slab-hut dwellings, late 1800s

This is a black-and-white photograph showing indentured Pacific Islanders and their families posing by their slab-hut homes, probably on a coastal Queensland sugar plantation. They are wearing Western-style clothes, with the women in long skirts and the men wearing jackets and trousers. The huts appear to have been constructed ...

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Pacific Islanders arriving at Bundaberg, 1895

The black-and-white photograph shows Pacific Islander men and women arriving in the sugar port of Bundaberg after being recruited to work as indentured labourers on Queensland's sugar plantations. The posed shot shows more than 60 Pacific Islander men, women and boys and one European on the deck of a schooner at the dock. ...

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Pacific Island labourer recruiting ship 'Para', c1880

This is a drawing of the two-masted brigantine 'Para', probably completed by Master Mariner William Wawn during a successful five months voyage to the Solomon Islands in 1894. One of a series of sketches of his impressions of the islands in pencil, ink and watercolour, it shows the recruiting ship offshore at anchor, as ...

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Pacific Islander workers on a coffee plantation, c1900

This black-and-white photograph shows indentured Pacific Islander labourers manually gathering coffee beans from lines of bushes on a Kuranda coffee plantation on the Atherton Tableland in Queensland. This image shows male, female and child labourers standing among the shoulder-high coffee bushes. The Pacific Islanders ...

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Pacific Islanders harvesting cane on Bingera Plantation, 1884

This sepia photograph shows around ten Pacific Islander labourers in a sugar-cane field at Bingera Plantation near Bundaberg in Queensland as the cane is being harvested. A well-dressed European man and two young children pose in the cleared foreground, while in the mid-ground stands a fully laden horsedrawn wagon with ...