Japanese / Year 9 and 10 / Understanding / Systems of language

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Curriculum content descriptions

Understand the systematic nature of Japanese language and grammatical forms, and explore how to use/combine these elements to express complex ideas

[Key concepts: syntax, verb conjugation, cohesion, classifiers; Key processes: describing, identifying, classifying, applying]


  • further developing metalanguage to describe and apply grammatical concepts and language elements, and to organise learning resources such as verb charts and lists of vocabulary and sentence structures
  • understanding and applying the rules of the plain form, and knowing that the basic form of all Japanese verbs ends in -u, -eru or -iru, as listed in dictionaries
  • understanding that verbs can be divided into three groups according to the way they are conjugated: Group 1 (five-step verbs), Group 2 (one-step verbs) and Group 3 (irregular verbs)
  • using character charts as a systematic framework that enables recognition of verb conjugation patterns, and applying the formation rules of each verb group
  • understanding and using a range of particles such as:
    • (or)
    • (purpose, indirect object, location)
    • (location of action, by means such as ペンで、 日本語で)
  • understanding and using and adjectives in the present and past tense
  • using verb stems with grammatical features such as ~たい、 ~ たくない、 ~ かった、 ~ やすい/にくいです
  • understanding and using verbforms to express a range of ideas, for example, ~ている、てもいいです、てはいけません、てはだめです
  • creating cohesion and flow by using conjunctions, for example, だから、 それで、 それに、 verbform, だから、 しかし、 それに、 けれども
  • expressing opinions, intentions and thoughts using the plain form, for example, ~つもりです、 ~とおもいます、 ~たり~たりします
  • asking and responding to questions using 何で? どうして/なぜ? どのぐらい? いくつ?
  • building vocabulary that relates to daily life and the world beyond school and home and that can be used for cross-curricular content learning
  • elaborating ideas or statements using expressions such as (こん)しゅう、 (せん)しゅう、 来年(らいねん)、 いつも、 ぜんぜん、 あまり
  • understanding Japanese counting systems using units of 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 and associated kanji, for example, (ひゃく)(せん)(まん)
  • extending the use of counter classifiers to include ~円(えん)、 ~分、 ~まい、 ~本、 ~つ、 ~日 (date)
  • expressing superlative forms using 一番(いちばん) for example, 一番好きなかもくは日本語です。
  • expressing the location of items by using prepositions such as (みぎ)(ひだり)(まえ)(うし)ろ、 (うえ)(した)、 となり、 そば 
  • understanding and using plain or polite forms as appropriate to context, for example, understanding the concept of uchi-soto ((うち)/(そと)) for making appropriate choices of register
General capabilities
  • Literacy Literacy
  • Numeracy Numeracy
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
ScOT terms

Cohesion (Language),  Conjugation (Grammar),  Japanese language,  Noun classifiers

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