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Spanish / Year 9 and 10 / Understanding / Systems of language

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

Extend knowledge of and use more complex features and patterns of the Spanish grammatical system, including possessive, demonstrative, object and relative pronouns; comparative and superlative adjectives; irregular verbs in the present tense, compound and simple past tenses, future and conditional tenses; and an introduction to the imperative mood

[Key concepts: tense, mood, modality; Key processes: analysing, classifying, applying, explaining]


  • understanding and using definite and indefinite articles, including omission and gender-change cases, for example, me gusta mucho el cuadro del salón, me gusta mucho un cuadro del salón, ¿tienen cuadros de paisajes?, el agua está fría
  • understanding and using indefinite adjectives and pronouns such as alguno/a/os/as, ninguno/a/os/as, otros/as, todos/as, alguien, nadie, nada, algo, todo, noticing the constructions with a double negative, for example, No hay nadie en clase, no tenemos nada
  • using collective nouns such as gente and familia, and noticing the use of singular verbs, for example, la gente en Australia pasa mucho tiempo al aire libre, mi familia tiene una casa en la playa
  • noticing the differences in meaning when the adjective precedes the noun, for example, un pobre hombre/un hombre pobre
  • expressing comparisons using comparatives and superlatives, including some irregular forms, for example, mejor que ..., peor que ..., el mayor, el menor, más ... que, menos ... que, el más ..., ...ísimo/a, tan ... como
  • understanding and using possessive and demonstrative pronouns (aquel es el tuyo, este es el mío) and the use of neutral demonstratives (¿qué es esto?, me gustó aquello que dijo)
  • understanding the form and function of personal object pronouns, and differentiating between direct and indirect objects in the third person, for example, me, te, lo, la/le, nos, os, los, las/les
  • understanding the function and use of relative pronouns, for example, que, el/la/los/las que, quien/es, el/la cual, los/las cuales, donde
  • understanding and using the different past tense forms for regular and irregular verbs (pretérito perfecto, pretérito indefinido and pretérito imperfecto), and comparing the uses with English past tense forms, for example, hemos estudiado los tiempos pasados, Marcos nació en Filipinas, ayer mi amigo estaba contento
  • using appropriate temporal markers, for example, hace ..., desde hace ..., durante ..., en 2011 ..., esta mañana ..., cuando era pequeño ..., desde ... hasta..., ayer ...
  • understanding and using the future and conditional tenses of regular and irregular verbs, for example, mañana iremos de excursión al zoo, me gustaría visitar México, saldría con vosotros pero tengo tarea
  • using some set expressions that require the use of the present subjunctive, for example, ¡que aproveche! ¡que te mejores! espero que estés bien
  • expressing agreement, disagreement and opinions using adverbs and expressions such as Yo también ...., yo tampoco ..., a mí sí ..., a mí no ...
  • indicating rules and giving instructions using expressions such as hay que ..., se puede/no se puede ..., and tener que + infinitive, and regular imperative affirmative forms, for example, cantad conmigo, pase el dado, toma mi bolígrafo, abran las ventanas, repita más despacio
  • understanding the function of impersonal expressions such as se necesita ..., se habla ..., se dice ..., se puede ...
  • using cohesive devices to link elements of complex sentences, for example, por lo tanto, además, sin embargo, al contrario de, de la misma manera
  • expanding the use of prepositions such as por, para, con, sin, contra, hacia to provide more detail or information
  • understanding how to form adverbs from adjectives, for example, normalmente, seguramente, probablemente
  • understanding and using an increasing range of prefixes and suffixes (anónimo, antibiótico, despeinado, supermercado, claustrofobia, lavadora, navideño, hermanito) and building lexical families (árbol, arbolito, arboleda, arbusto, arborícola, arbóreo, arboricultura, enarbolar)
  • developing awareness of the presence of ‘false friends’ in Spanish and English, for example, actualmente / currently, realizar / carry out, embarazada / pregnant, constipado / a cold
  • developing metalanguage to talk in Spanish about elements such as sentence structure (sujeto, verbo, objeto), verb tenses (pretérito, futuro, tiempo compuesto, participio pasado) and other linguistic features (sinónimo, concordancia, párrafo)
General capabilities
  • Literacy Literacy
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
ScOT terms

Spanish language

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