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Science / Year 4 / Science as a Human Endeavour / Nature and development of science

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE061)

  • exploring ways in which scientists gather evidence for their ideas and develop explanations
  • considering how scientific practices such as sorting, classification and estimation are used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in everyday life
General capabilities
  • Numeracy Numeracy
ScOT terms

Predictions (Science),  Patterns,  Causality


Ngan'gi seasons calendar

This is a seasonal calendar developed by the Ngan’gi people of the Northern Territory in collaboboration with CSIRO. The resource contains an introduction, a richly illustrated calendar and related links. The introduction includes information about the people’s wish to document traditional knowledge of their Daly River ...

Teacher resource

Primary Connections: Magnetic moves

This comprehensive teacher resource focuses on exploring magnetic forces. Students investigate how magnetic forces apply to objects over a distance, examine what materials can be pulled with a magnet and how friction affects the movement of objects being pulled by a magnet. They explore how two magnets can repel each other, ...

Teacher resource

Primary Connections: Among the gum trees

This comprehensive teacher resource focuses on the biology of eucalyptus trees. Students identify eucalyptus trees in their local environments and explore the life cycle of eucalypts, including germinating their own collected seeds. They investigate how eucalyptus trees form part of a complex ecosystem and research the ...

Teacher resource

Living and non-living things

This is a unit designed to help students gain understanding of environmental biodiversity through the examination of living and non-living things in a local environment. Students examine and compare familiar ecological areas and study the life stages of living things. They explore factors that affect living things within ...

Interactive resource

Electromagnetism: electromagnet basics

Explore the parts of an electromagnet circuit. Test objects made of different materials to find out whether they are affected by magnetic fields. For example, discover whether a rubber band is deflected by the field of an electromagnet. This learning object is one of three learning objects in the same series.

Teacher resource

Where would we be without bees?

This inquiry sequence investigates the importance of bees in the natural world and how living things depend on each other and the environment to survive. Students are also provided with activities to investigate the life cycle and food chains of a range of animals including bees.

Teacher resource

Transfer of heat

This is a unit of work designed to help students understand the transfer of heat between objects and apply this knowledge in their everyday lives. Students participate in activities to explore modes of heat transfer and investigate how conductors and insulators affect heat transfer. They examine familiar contexts of heat ...

Interactive Resource

Biodiversity – sustainability action process (Years 3–6)

This biodiversity learning resource guides students through an extended school based investigation. Students develop and implement a chosen sustainability action and then evaluate and reflect on their success and their learning.

Teacher resource

Shaping the Earth's surface

This is a unit designed to help students understand the natural and artificial process that shapes the Earth's surface over time and how this has relevance in their own lives. Students gain understanding of how the surface of the Earth changes due to the natural processes of weathering and erosion by exploring how these ...


Gooniyandi seasons calendar

This is the Mingayooroo - Manyi Waranggiri Yarrangi, Gooniyandi seasons calendar developed by people of the Gooniyandi language group of the Kimberley in collaboration with CSIRO. The resource consists of an introduction, a richly illustrated calendar and related links. The introduction contains information about the people’s ...

Tablet friendly (Interactive resource)

Make it alive: spotted tree frogs

Investigate the stream habitat of the endangered spotted tree frog. Discover what these frogs eat in the developing stages of their life. Find enough food so the frogs develop from the tadpole stage through to adulthood. Help the tadpoles escape from predatory fish such as the introduced rainbow trout. Search for safe places ...

Teacher resource

Classroom Antarctica: Antarctic animal life cycles

This is a learning sequence exploring the life cycles of six Antarctic animals and comparing their life stages and development. A story plan template is provided to guide the creation of student stories. The activities are supported by resources sourced from the Australian Antarctic Divisions' scientific and environmental ...

Interactive resource


Investigate how musical instruments make a range of notes. Relate the sounds made by panpipes to pipe length. Relate the sound made by a bongo drum to skin size and tension. Relate the sound made by a guitar to string thickness, length and tension. Answer questions about the parts of each instrument and their relationship ...

Interactive Resource

All about eggs: To lay or not to lay

This interactive lesson describes the structure of a chicken egg and the factors affecting the production and reproduction of that egg. Students also learn how animals can be grouped into categories based on their physical features and survival needs and cause and effect factors in relation to animal welfare and the supply ...

Teacher resource

Friction is all around us

The video clip ‘The magic of friction’ provides an opportunity for students to gain an appreciation of, and insight into, frictional forces. Students undertake an experiment with a toy car to explore how the motion of the car is affected by varying the surface of the car’s wheels. Additional resources are available to investigate ...

Teacher resource

Magnetism and electrostatics: Connected Learning Experience (CLE)

This Connected Learning Experience investigates how non-contact forces such as magnetism and electrostatic electricity can move objects without directly touching them. This CLE provides teachers with two inquiry-based investigations (and five activity stations) supported by a teaching and learning plan, background information ...

Teacher resource

Classroom Antarctica: Predators and prey

In this learning sequence, students explore feeding relationships between Antarctic animals. They investigate food chains and explore different predator-prey relationships in the food web. The activity compares the food chains of blue whales and orcas (killer whales) and considers how the changes in the amount of daylight ...

Interactive resource

Sound: strings

Investigate how a musical instrument makes a range of notes. Relate the sound made by a guitar to string thickness, length and tension. Answer questions about the strings and their relationship to the sound produced. For example, if a guitar string is tightened, will it vibrate faster and produce a higher pitch? This learning ...

Interactive Resource

Environmental and Zoo Education Centres – primary school resources

A collection of digital resources for primary school teachers and students to support teaching and learning from home, with a particular focus on geography, science and history. The resources were developed by Department of Education teachers from 25 Environmental and Zoo Education Centres in NSW and include Google Sites, ...

Teacher resource

Yolngu sea country: observing the seasons

This is the seasonal calendar of the Yolngu people of the coastal region of north-east Arnhem Land. The resource contains an introduction, English and Yolngu-matha versions of the calendar, a table listing the winds and related links. The introduction includes information about how the people see the changes in time and ...