Science / Year 8 / Science Understanding / Earth and space sciences

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Curriculum content descriptions

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (ACSSU153)

Elaborations
  • representing the stages in the formation of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, including indications of timescales involved
  • identifying a range of common rock types using a key based on observable physical and chemical properties
  • recognising that rocks are a collection of different minerals
  • considering the role of forces and energy in the formation of different types of rocks and minerals
  • recognising that some rocks and minerals, such as ores, provide valuable resources
ScOT terms

Rock types,  Minerals (Mineralogy),  Earth movements

Interactive Resource

Rock your World: student digital

This is a student digital resource that contains interactive materials for exploring all aspects of rocks including types of rocks (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic), landforms and shaping of the Earth, composition and minerals they contain, and the cycling of rocks. This resource contains a rich array of digital interactive ...

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Below Earth's crust

Imagine tunnelling deep, deep below the Earth's surface. What do you think you would find thousands of kilometres down? Watch this clip to find out what is inside the Earth, what it's made up of and how hot it is. Find out about earthquakes, volcanoes, and geysers, and how they help us to understand about the composition ...

Interactive resource

Down to Earth: rock back in time

Choose a rock sample and find out how it was formed millions of years ago. For example, see how coal was formed in a swampy forest. Explore the Earth’s surface at the time when the rock formed. Look at maps, landscapes, living things and environments. Compare temperatures and sea levels with those of today. Explore how ...

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Earthquakes

You might not realise but the ground beneath us never stops moving. Only when the movement is sudden and powerful do we take note.

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Earth's rocks

Discover the main rock types and how they are formed. Find out about the rock cycle and how the Earth is constantly re-forming rocks. Find out what you can learn about the history of a rock from looking at its crystal composition and patterns.

Teacher resource

Natural disasters

This is a teaching and learning resource containing teacher resources, student activities and worksheets on Earth science topics including natural disasters and geology. The teacher resources include five pages of links to Earth science related websites. The collection of student activities covers a range of topics and ...

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Rock Your World: student guide

This is a student guide that takes an in-depth look at sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks including rock composition and characteristics, how they form, the rock cycle, landforms and the geological changes over time. This resource contains different parts or chapters, each with information, images and diagrams, ...

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Erosion moves rocks and soil

Imagine the power of wind and water as mountains are worn down and sent to the sea. Recognise the importance of water as it moves particles of different sizes and deposits them to form new soils that support plant and animal life. Consider evidence that erosion is an important process in the formation of new rock in a continual ...

Interactive resource

Shaping the land

Experiment with cross-section models of the Earth's crust. Explore how landforms are shaped over time. Apply geological forces: deposition of sediments, folding, faulting, igneous intrusions and erosion. Work out a sequence of geological events to match example landforms, including real landscapes. This learning object ...

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Deep ocean volcanoes

This is a video resource about the discovery of the deepest ocean volcano to date - the West Mata submarine volcano between Samoa, Fiji and Tonga - which is more than 1000 metres beneath the ocean surface. The video features footage of the erupting volcano, with lava believed to be among the hottest on Earth, and shows ...

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How metamorphic rocks are formed

Imagine the forces required to change one type of rock into another type. Listen to presenter, Bernie Hobbs, explain the forces that transform sedimentary rocks to metamorphic rocks. She visits the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) to demonstrate how limestone can be transformed into its matching ...

Teacher resource

Water: learn it for life! - year 7 science

This PDF unit of work is one of a series of resources accessible by searching the list in the series.It includes two teaching and learning sequences: 'Water journeys' focuses on the water cycle, and 'Pure water' focuses on the processes and people involved in creating and managing drinkable water. It provides Australian ...

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Rock recipes

Explore the different types of minerals inside rocks. See that most rock-forming minerals are made up of just two common elements. Discover that most minerals are made up of the same basic building blocks put together in different ways, and that this can explain some of their properties.

Teacher resource

Rock your world: teacher guide

This is a teacher guide that contains an overview a unit of work on the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. It contains resources to assist planning and implementing a study of the different types of rocks; their composition and characteristics; how they form; and the rock cycle. Interactive and ...

Interactive Resource

Oresome world

This interactive resource takes students on a journey of discovery in the energy and mining world. Oresome world contains five games or modules: Coal, Energy, Gas, Low emissions and Mining, and within each of these there are several facilities to explore, such as the Underground mining site, Hydroelectric power station, ...

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Fossils and the evolution of life

Have you ever wondered how scientists know when the early mammals appeared on Earth, or how long ago dinosaurs died out? Watch this clip to discover the role of fossils, and the rocks they are found in, in revealing the order and history of life on Earth. This clip takes you to fossil sites in Queensland; and to Shark Bay ...

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Formation of ancient rock layers

Discover how our understanding of rocks has developed over time and the role played by mining. The way rocks are formed, and what they are composed of, tells us a lot about what has occurred on Earth in the past. Watch this clip to find out about the formation of ancient rock layers, and what we find inside very old rocks.

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Millions of years to form, minutes to burn

Venture underground into a coalmine and see how coal formed in layers from the remains of plants and animals that lived long ago. You'll soon see why it's considered a non-renewable resource, yet coal is a source of energy that generates about 40 per cent of the world's electricity.

Interactive Resource

Sites2See: Volcanoes

Links to resources outlining some famous volcanic eruptions and explaining the types and causes of volcanic activity.

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A career as a geologist

Do all scientists wear white lab coats and work with chemicals? Watch this clip and discover how a career in science can take you soaring to dizzying heights. Find out what an exploration geologist does and why helicopters are used in the job. This clip will inspire you to consider a career in one of the many varied fields ...