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History / Year 8 / Historical Knowledge and Understanding

View on Australian Curriculum website Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
Curriculum content descriptions

When, how and why the Spanish arrived in the Americas, and where they went, including the various societies and geographical features they encountered (ACDSEH073)

Elaborations
  • explaining the arrival of Spanish conquistadores in Mexico and Peru from 1510 AD (CE) (Balboa) to 1531 (Pizarro), and their reasons (for example, seeking wealth, claiming land for their king, converting the local populations to Christianity, sense of adventure)
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking
  • Intercultural understanding Intercultural understanding
ScOT terms

Landforms,  Exploration,  American history,  Mexican history,  Peruvian history,  First contact,  Spanish history

Online

The mighty Aztecs

Who were the MÄ“xihcah? Discover the rich and brutal history of the Aztec culture and the birth of Modern Mexico.

Video

Show me the evidence: finding proof of the Inca

Do you have a time machine? If not, how can you be certain that your understanding of history is correct? In this clip from the 1985 documentary 'Sweat of the Sun, Tears of the Moon', reporter Jack Pizzey considers what is known about the Inca Empire. He acknowledges there is much that we can't be sure of. This clip is ...

Interactive

Exploring Kamay

This resource explores the landscape of Kamay Botany Bay, as well as the technology discovered by the crew aboard the HMB Endeavour in 1770. This resource is one part of the 'Endeavour – eight days in Kamay' resource.

Online

Burke and Wills: Then and Now

This is a website about a journey in 2010 that retraced the 1860 Burke and Wills expedition from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Topics include: the landscape, the route, the flora and fauna, Burke’s tree, aboriginal bush foods and various interviews with experts and involved individuals. The resource is presented ...

Image

Shackleton expedition at Lyttelton Harbour, 1914

This is a black-and-white photograph showing the sailing ship 'Endurance' being loaded with ponies and sled dogs at Lyttelton (east coast of the South Island of New Zealand) for Ernest Shackleton's expedition to Antarctica. A crowd of people is aboard the ship, watching proceedings, and there are groups of people in the ...

Image

The Mighty Aztecs

Who were the Mexihcah? Discover the rich and brutal history of the Aztec culture and the birth of Modern Mexico.

Video

How did the world become interconnected?

This 10 minute video in 3 parts offers an overview of the growth of information networks through developments in the technologies of communication and transportation. Part 1 discusses how writing, inventions of paper and printing improved communication between societies and the development of transport and courier systems ...

Text

Naachtun: lost city of the Maya

This resource is about the Mayan city of Naachtun rediscovered by archaeologists in 1922. It provides background material on the archaeological visits to the Mayan site from 1922 through to 2002, and describes the remnants of the structures and artefacts of the city, including stone monuments carved with hieroglyphic inscriptions ...

Video

Tulum, an ancient Mayan city

Discover the remains of Tulum, a city that was once a busy port for a civilisation that thrived in Mexico for centuries. In this clip from an ABC Foreign Correspondent program, reporter Jane Cowan scales the heights of the Coba pyramid and recounts some of the history of the Mayan people who built it.

Image

Successful explorers at the South Pole, 1911

This is a mounted sepia photograph, measuring 7.6 cm x 12.6 cm, taken by Olar Bjaaland (1873-1961) at the South Pole on 14 December 1911. It shows his four companions paying tribute to the Norwegian flag flying from their tent. Written across the mount below the photograph is the caption, 'The successful explorers at the ...

Video

Farming genius: the real wealth of the Inca

Discover the remarkable world of the Inca. Before Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century, the Inca Empire was the largest in the Americas. In this clip from the 1985 documentary 'Sweat of the Sun, Tears of the Moon', ABC reporter Jack Pizzey investigates the agricultural practices of the ancient Inca. He discusses ...

Video

Impact of European settlement on Aboriginal Tasmanians

Aboriginal Tasmanians had inhabited Tasmania for over 40,000 years before the arrival of European settlers. What do you think life was like for Aboriginal Tasmanians before then? Why might have they embarked on a war, called the 'Black War', once settlers began arriving in Tasmania, despite existing relatively peacefully ...

Image

Sled dogs at the South Pole, 1911

This is a 1911 black-and-white sepia-toned photograph, taken by Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) at the South Pole, of a dog team hitched to a loaded sled on the snow. A figure dressed in Arctic-style cold weather gear stands beside the sled and a Norwegian flag is stuck in the snow. Apart from three other dogs tethered behind ...

Image

'Meeting of Major Mitchell and Edward Henty, Portland Bay, 1836'

This is a photo-engraving, approximately 52.5 cm x 69.0 cm in size, depicting two men in front of a farm greeting a party of visitors. It shows Edward Henty shaking the hand of Major Thomas Mitchell, who is on horseback. They are watched by a man standing on the left-hand side and by four members of Mitchell's party on ...

Image

The 'Dig' tree in 1878

This is a watercolour by Arthur Esam (1850-1938), created in 1878 and measuring a modest 32.5 cm x 26.7 cm. It shows a coolibah tree with two sections of bark missing - the famous 'Dig' tree of the Burke and Wills Expedition of 1861. A man (perhaps Esam himself) is standing holding the reins of a horse, and appears to be ...

Image

Macquarie Island party, 1911-14

This is a black-and-white photograph of five members of Sir Douglas Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-14 team at Macquarie Island. The men are posed in front of two rocky outcrops, dressed in heavy Antarctic clothing. The personnel pictured are (left to right) Charles A Sandell, wireless operator and mechanic; ...

Image

'Australian exploration, an expedition on the march', 1874

This is a black-and-white print that depicts the ill-fated expedition, led by explorer Peter Egerton Warburton, which attempted to cross central Australia in 1873. The print shows expedition members astride camels with Warburton in the lead and an Aboriginal guide on foot in the desert. The print, which measures 35.5 cm ...

Image

Enrolling in the Land Army, c1944

This is a posed black-and-white photograph, measuring 24.7 cm x 19 cm and taken around 1944 in Drouin, Victoria by Jim Fitzpatrick. It shows a formally dressed young woman seated in front of a desk labelled 'War Agricultural Committee'. A man, seated behind the desk, is handing her a book entitled 'Food front'. The furniture ...

Interactive

Resistance

This resource is a virtual tour of the Resistance exhibition at The National Museum of Australia showing different responses by Aboriginal people to British colonisation. See videos and enlarged views of objects and texts in the exhibition.

Audio

Alexandra Shackleton discusses Ernest Shackleton, 2005

This is an edited sound recording of the Hon Alexandra Shackleton, grand-daughter of the Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton. She recounts aspects of his leadership of a 1907-09 expedition to Antarctica, relating how, for the sake of the survival of his team, he abandoned his bid to be the first to reach the geographic ...