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Science / Year 9 / Science understanding / Physical sciences

Curriculum content descriptions

apply the law of conservation of energy to analyse system efficiency in terms of energy inputs, outputs, transfers and transformations (AC9S9U05)

Elaborations
  • explaining that the law of conservation of energy explains that total energy is maintained in energy transfer and transformation in a system
  • explaining efficiency and recognising that in energy transfer and transformation a variety of processes can occur, so that the amount of usable energy is reduced and the system is not 100% efficient
  • using and critiquing representations such as Sankey diagrams to show energy inputs, changes and outputs in a system
  • investigating the efficiency of ground ovens used by First Nations Australians
  • comparing the efficiency of electricity generation from coal and other sources such as nuclear, hydroelectricity, gas, solar and wind
  • examining the meaning of energy star ratings given to appliances such as refrigerators and washing machines and criteria used to determine these ratings
  • examining how improving efficiency in energy transfer and transformations in sporting activities such as pole vaulting or archery improves athletic performance
General capabilities
  • Critical and creative thinking Critical and Creative Thinking
ScOT terms

Energy conversion

Video

How does the retina work?

When electrons in your retina absorb photons of light they don't emit light, they cause a molecule to change shape - and that lets you see colour!

Interactive

Thermal comfort – sustainability action process (Years 7–10)

This thermal comfort learning resource will guide students through an extended school based investigation. Students will develop and implement a chosen sustainability action and then evaluate and reflect on their success and their learning.

Interactive

Sites2See: Light and Matter

Links to resources to explore fundamental questions about light and matter and the application of the physics of light and matter to the past, the future and to space. Includes a quick quiz, links to additional DEC NSW physics resources and to the International Science School at the University of Sydney.

Video

Solar Prints

This 6 minute video segment from Catalyst is an excellent introduction to the science behind photovoltaics. A useful comparison of the efficiency of energy conversion. Discussion of other issues considered in producing devices to use renewable energy to make electricity.

Interactive

Energy skate park: basics

This is an interactive teaching and learning resource that years 7 to 10 secondary school students can use to simulate the motion of a skateboarder descending and ascending on a variety of tracks. Height, speed and energy conservation are visually displayed. The skater's mass and starting height, as well as the drag he ...

Interactive

Invictus Games Sydney 2018 – Science – Stage 5

Modern prosthetics are developed to offer comfort and practicality in a range of complex environments. This Stage 5 unit, The science and technology of prosthetics and the physics of movement, explores a number of technological advances in the field of prosthetics including material strength, sensors and actuators and osseointegration. ...

Video

Can photons and atoms generate laser?

Electrons around atoms can absorb and emit photons of particular colours of light – see three different atomic models explain what's going on.

Interactive

Projectile motion

This is an interactive resource about projectile motion. Students use a simulation of a cannon to fire various objects. They can set the firing angle, initial speed, height and mass, with or without air resistance. Students are encouraged to make a game out of this simulation by trying to hit a target. This interactive ...

Interactive

Energy skate park

This is an interactive resource about the potential and kinetic energy changes as a skater rolls around a skate park. Students learn about conservation of energy with a skater, they can build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy and friction as he moves. Students can also ...

Interactive

2024 Dreaming

Explore options for houses, work, food and transport in 2024 in this multimedia presentation from Radio National. A useful resource for stimulating discussion about applications of science and implications for society and the environment as well as current issues and developments in science. Gives examples of how different ...

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Copper processing

Find out how copper ore is extracted and turned into copper metal. This is a PowerPoint presentation showing the properties, uses and extraction of copper. It includes details of the mining and processing of copper ore, as well as smelting, converting and refining to produce copper metal. Most slides contain photographs ...

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Energy efficiency in homes

Find out how to save energy at home and reduce your carbon footprint. This fact sheet describes strategies that can be used in the home to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

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All about hydrogen

This is a fact sheet providing information on how we produce hydrogen from fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The uses of hydrogen are briefly discussed and information is provided about hydrogen fuel cells.

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Gas-fired power

Find out how gas-fired power stations work. This fact sheet describes the generation of electricity in gas-fired power stations, which typically produce 50 per cent less carbon dioxide than conventional coal-fired power plants. Information is provided about the Daandine Power Station located west of Brisbane, which uses ...

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Integrated gasification combined cycle

Find out how emissions from coal-burning can be reduced by turning the coal into syngas. This is a fact sheet describing methods of coal gasification, and how the resulting syngas can drive a combined cycle power generator. It lists the advantages of the technology, including lower emissions and increased efficiency, as ...

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Energy efficiency in industry

Find out how industries can reduce their carbon footprints. This is an information sheet describing practices that can be used by industry to make energy use more efficient and thus reduce power bills as well as lowering greenhouse-gas emissions. A number of examples from the mining industry, such as the redesign of dragline ...

Online

Climate change – creating critical thinkers … not sceptics!

Climate change was once just part of the science domain, but today it is a political juggernaut! This unit explores the science of climate change as a scientific concept and a political issue. The unit includes PDF resources and video quiz challenges for teachers and student and the library section provides extra resources ...

Video

Low-emission energy future

Find out about the technologies that can reduce our greenhouse-gas emissions. This resource consists of an animated video accompanied by an interactive landscape activity. The video focuses on technologies that can reduce carbon-dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, as well as renewable energy and improved ...

Interactive

Copper processing

This interactive activity allows students to explore the processes involved in the mining and processing of copper ore and the production of copper. Students initially put the processes in the correct sequence and then select each stage to animate it and access relevant information. The smelting stage includes an activity ...

Online

Secondary science: models and simulations

These seven learning activities, which focus on 'models and simulations' using a variety of tools (software) and devices (hardware), illustrate the ways in which content, pedagogy and technology can be successfully and effectively integrated in order to promote learning. In the activities, teachers assist students to interpret, ...